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Full text of "Pennsylvania Museum Bulletin. Number 51, July 1915"

BULLETIN ''f™'^ 

PENNSYLVANIA 

MUSEUM 

PUBLISHED QyARTERU^ 

BY TH£ 

PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM^^ 
SCHOOL"'^ INDUSTRIAL ART 

MEMORIAL HALL 

FAIRMOl 

PHILAfii^BlA 




SUBSCRIPTION 



llOOPERYEAI^ 



July, 1915 



f 



Entered, August 27, 1903, at Philadelphia, Pa., as Second-Class Matter, under Act of Congress oj July 16, 1894 



PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 

AND SCHOOL OF INDUSTRIAL ART 



IBoart) of trustees 

The Governor of the State, Ex-Of. The Mayor 

Mrs. Rudolph Blankenburg Charles H. Harding 



Charles Bond 
James Butterworth 
John G. Carruth 
Harrington Fitzgerald 
Mrs. Henry S. Grove 
John Gribbel 



Thomas Skelton Harrison 
John Story Jenks 
John H. McFadden 
John D. McIlhenny 
Mrs. Arthur V. Meigs 
John T. Morris 



OF THE City, Ex-Of. 
John W. Pepper 
Theodore C. Search 
Edgar V. Seeler 
Mrs. Joseph F. Sinnott 
Edward T. Stotesbury 
James P. Sullivan 
William Wood 



©tftcers 



Vice-Presidents 



THEODORE C. SEARCH, President 

JOHN STORY JENKS, 

JOHN G. CARRUTH, 

JAMES BUTTERWORTH, Treasurer 

EDWIN ATLEE BARBER, Secretary 

LESLIE W. MILLER, Principal of the School 



EDWIN ATLEE BARBER, Editor 



Bulletin 



3for 3ul^, Ulinetcen lHunDrc& an^ jflfteen 
CONTENTS 

PAGB 

Mosaic and Millefiori Glass. By Edwin A. Barber 31 

Some Recent Accessions 40 

A Gilded Wooden Statue 
Two Pieces of Old English Silver 
A Remarkable Doll 
Point d'Alengon Lace 

By Mrs. Cornelius Stevenson 

Notes 47 

General Information 47 



BULLETIN 

OF 

THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 

JULY, 1915 THIRTEENTH YEAR Number 51 

MOSAIC AND MILLEFIORI GLASS 

A loan collection of millefiori and flowered glass paperweights, on exhibi- 
tion in the Museum, has attracted much attention because they recall to the 
majority of \nsitors similar ornaments, which they can remember ha\dng seen 
in their own homes. This exhibit not only consists of examples of finished 
variegated glass objects, such as paperweights, cologne bottles, mirror knobs 
and marbles, but illustrates the processes of manufacture which are a re\aval 
of an old Roman art. 

Millefiori glass derives its name from its resemblance to a bouquet or 
cluster of brightly colored blossoms, the meaning of the word being "a thousand 
flowers." It. is formed by arranging side by side and fusing together small 
glass rods, or filigree canes, of different designs and colors, and from the mass 
cutting thin transverse or diagonal slices or sheets which may be bent into the 
forms of saucers, bowls and other objects, or used in the manner of inserts or 
tiles for covering walls. 

Mosaic glass is the highest development of millefiori glass and was carried 
to considerable perfection by the ancient Egj-ptians, and later by -the Romans. 
Winckelmann, in "The History of Ancient Art" (Translated by G. Henry 
Lodge, M.D., Boston, Osgood '& Co., 1872, Vol. I, p. 220), describes some 
remarkable examples of this character: 

"In the composite variegated kind of glass, two small pieces which came 
to light in Rome a few years ago (1765) display a skill that is truly amazing; 
neither of them is quite an inch long, or a third of an inch broad. One of them 
exhibits on a dark, variegated ground a bird, resembling a duck, of different 
and very lively colors, but painted more after the Chinese manner. The out- 
line is firm and sharp; the colors are beautiful and pure, and of very brilliant 
effect, because the artist has introduced, as the places required it, sometimes 
translucent and sometimes opaque glass. The most delicate pencil of the 
miniature-painter could not have expressed more accurately the circle of the 
eyeball, and the visibly overlapping feathers on the breast and wings. The 
fragment is broken off just back of the commencement of the wings. But 
this piece excites the greatest astonishment in the spectator when, on looking 
at the other side of it, he sees the very same bird, without being able to detect 



32 BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 

any difference in the minutest particular. Hence, we must conclude that the 
figure of the bird extends through the whole thickness of the glass. 

"The painting had been made by placing threads of glass of different 
colors in contact with each other, and melting them into union. It is not to 
be supposed that so much labor would have been expended merely in continuing 
this image through a thickness so inconsiderable as one-sixth of an inch, when 
it was equally easy to obtain the same effect in the same time, by means of 
longer threads, through a thickness of many inches. Hence we may conclude 
that this fragment was a slice from a thicker piece of glass, through which the 
picture was carried, and that the image could be multiplied just as often as the 
thickness of the fragment mentioned was contained in the thickness of the 
piece from which it was separated. 

"The second fragment, which is of about the same size, is prepared in 
precisely the same way. On it are ornaments in green, yellow, and white, 
consisting of scrolls, beads, and flowerets, which are represented on a blue 
ground, and run together so as to form pyramids. The whole is very clear and 
distinct, and still so infinitely small that even a keen eye finds a difficulty in 
following the extremely fine ends in which the scrolls terminate; and yet, 
notwithstanding, all these delicate ornaments are continued uninterrupted, 
through the entire thickness of the fragment. 

"Now, as glass can be drawn out into threads of any length, and of exceed- 
ing fineness, and with equal facility, even when many glass tubes are placed 
together, and then m.elted, their relative position not being changed in drawing, 
... it is rendered probable that, in such manufactures of glass, larger tubes 
were reduced, by drawing, to tubes of exceeding fineness." 

Referring to these specimens. Sir I. Gardner Wilkinson, in "The Manners 
and Customs of the Ancient Egyptians" (New York, 1879, \'ol. II, p. 145), 
writes : 

"The glass described by Winckelmann is of the later Ptolemaic, or Roman 
period, and was not made b}' the Egyptians at an older period. It was pro- 
duced chiefly at Alexandria, and used for small objects, and similar specimens 
are not uncommonly found at Rome, which was supplied with glass from Eg\'pt. 
This kind was made in cylindrical or square rods, the glass being arranged in 
patterns vertically, and horizontal sections taken which had the pattern on 
each side." 

Keysler, writing in the early part of the eighteenth century, describes a 
somewhat similar method of reproducing in tinted glass the original paintings 
on can\'as or wood which in some of the Roman churches were rapidl}' dis- 
appearing before the ravages of dampness and age. "The materials used are 
little pieces of glass, of all the different shades in every tint or color like those 
of the fine English worsted used in needle-work. The glass is first cast into 
thin cakes, which are afterwards cut into long pieces of different thickness. 
Many of the pieces used in the works on roofs and ceilings, which are, conse- 
quently, seen only at a great distance, appear to be a finger's breadth; but 
the finer works consist only of glass pins, if I may call them so, not thicker 
than a common sewing needle, so that a portrait of four feet square shall take 
up two millions of such pins or studs. These are so closeh' joined together, 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANL\ MUSEUM 



33 







Mosaic Glass 
In the British Museum 



34 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 



that, after the piece is polished, it can hardly be discerned to be glass, but 
rather looks like a picture painted with the finest colors. The ground on which 
these vitreous pieces are inlaid is a paste compounded of calcined marble, fine 
sand, gum tragacanth, white of eggs, and oil; it is at first so soft that the pieces 
are easily inserted, and upon anj- oversight may be taken out again, and the 
paste new moulded for the admission of other pins; but by degrees it grows 
as hard as a stone, so that no impression can be made on the work. 

"This paste is spread within a wooden frame, which for the larger pieces 
must not be less than a foot in breadth and thickness. A piece of about 
eighty square feet, if perfomied with tolerable care and delicacy, will employ 
eight artists for two years. 

"The pins of the several colors lie ready before the artists in cases, as the 
letters are laid before the compositors in a printing-house; and such is their 
accuracy in imitating the finest strokes of the pencil, that the only apparent 
difference betwixt the original painting and such a copy is, that the latter has 
a much finer lustre, and the colors are more \'ivid." 

Mr. R. L. Hobson has furnished the ■svriter photographs of several fine 
examples of ancient Roman mosaic and millefiori glass from the collection in 
the British Museum (see full-page plate). One of the former represents the 
figure of a hawk; another the head of a Roman lady, while a larger fragment 
shows, among other details, such as madrepore or coralline defaces, a cluster 
of flowers and seed pods of the lotus plant. Of millefiori glass two examples 
reproduced in the same plate are of particular interest as illustrating the condi- 
tion of the glass-workers' art in the early years of the Christian era. The long, 
slender piece is decorated with star-like flowers in various colors, while the 
circular design reveals the source from which the nineteenth century makers 
of colored paperweights derived their insjairation. 

In Egypt some of the Alexandrian prcductions of the Grjeco-Roman period 
illustrate the beginning of the art of picture working in stained glass. Two 
examples in the collection of Mr. Charles L. Freer, of Detroit, Mich., are among 
the most remarkable of their kind which have come to light. One of these is a 
bar three and a half inches in length and a little over an inch in height and 
width, which contains through its entire length parallel threads of colored 





He.\D of SlLENUS S.^CRED BuLL OF EgVPT 

E.xamples of Ancient Egyptian Mosaic Glass 
In the Collection of Mr. Charles L. Freer 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 



35 













Madrepore and Millefiori Glass 

Ancient Roman 

In the Pennsylvania Museum 



36 BULLETIN OF THE PEXNSYLVANL^ MUSEUM 

glass which when cut transversely represent the head of Silenus, or, more prop- 
erly stated, half of the face, the other half having been broken off and lost. 
The ground color is deep blue. The face is dark sealing-wax red, while the 
accurately defined eyeball and teeth are white. Black lines in the mouth, ear 
and eye serve to accentuate the coloring. The wavy, plaited beard is pale, 
grayish green, as are also the ivy or grape leaves which spring from the head. 
Around the ear and in the forehead are millefiori scrolls and rosettes. 

The second example, of still earlier date, is Egj-ptian in design. It consists 
of a block of glass, almost cubical in fonxi, measuring an inch in width and 
depth. In the cerulean blue ground the figure of Apis, the sacred bull, stands 
out distinctl}'- in black and white. The space between the horns is pale grayish 
green. Beneath the figure is a millefiori ground of floral and foliated orna- 
ments, which are of ochre color on a black field. The broken end at the back 
shows the identical design, which continues entirely through the piece. 

In these specimens we recognize the prototypes of the mosaic and miUefiori 
work which was developed a few centuries later in Italy. While lacking the 
delicacy of treatment of the later work, they show a breadth and vigor of execu- 
tion which have not been surpassed in more recent times. 

The Venetian or Murano glass-workers revived the ancient Roman art 
of flowered glass early in the nineteenth century. About the middle of that 
century, paperweights of this character were extensively produced in Bohemia 
and Alsace-Lorraine, and about the same time the art was carried to great 
perfection in France, notably at Baccarat. A few years later, workmen from 
some of these places found their way to England and the United States and 
introduced the manufacture in those countries. For a while ornamental paper- 
weights were exceedingly popular, particularly in this country, on account of 
their bright colorings and pleasing designs. Between 1850 and 1870, a con- 
siderable trade in these ornaments was carried on, and in almost ever\' house 
in the larger cities of the Atlantic states and their vicinities one or more of 
these objects formed the usual decoration of the writing desk or the comer 
"whatnot." 

A circular medallion with mosaic portrait of Victor Emmanuel, reproduced 
from a photograph of a specimen in the British Museum, having been executed 
in colored glass threads by G. B. Franchini, of Venice, between 1848 and 1852, 
shows the high degree of perfection to which this branch of the art has been 
brought in Italy in modern times (see plate). 

Preparation of the Rods and Processes of Manufacture 

The glass rods used in the preparation of modem milleflori glass are usu- 
ally made in metal moulds of comparatively large size. The interior may be 
circular or scalloped. Into one of these moulds ropes of colored glass are 
arranged in the pattern desired, to which, when liberated, two workmen attach 
iron rods, one at each end of the mass, and draw it out until it is of the requisite 
slendemess. The design retains its exact proportions through the entire 
length and is as perfect in a rod of an eighth of an inch diameter as in the 
original thick cylinder. If an animal is to be represented the mould is cut into 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 



37 




MiLLEFiORi Paperweights 
Made at Baccarat, France, 1850-1860 




MiLLEFioRi Paperweights 

Baccarat, France 

The one at the left is dated 1847 



the exact shape and when the glass is released and dra^vn out each detail of 
legs, tail, ears and other parts is uniformly reproduced in solid color so that 
even in the tiniest representation of the figure every part appears to be per- 
fectly formed. Sometimes a cane will be composed of many threads of various 
colors and designs, each of which has been formed in this manner, arranged 
around a central rod and welded together. When the rods are finished they 
are broken into small pieces, or cut into uniform lengths or into thin slices, 
according to the sort of paperweight or other object to be made. 

Into an iron ring, the size of a paperweight, a cushion of molten glass is 
dropped and while soft the sections of rods are laid on the surface or stuck 



38 BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 

in it side by side in a regular pattern, the tops of the rods being pressed into a 
rounded or convex form. Over all more of the melted glass is poured and the 
surface rounded into hemispherical shape by means of a concave spatula of 
moistened wood. The last process consists in polishing the surface of the 
curved top and the fiat base after the ball has been again heated. 

Apsley Pellatt, in his "Curiosities of Glass-Making" (London, 1849, 
p. 110), describes the manner of making glass mosaic work as follows: 

"The Romans, and possibly the Greeks, formed beautiful arabesque and 
other designs of Mosaic Glass : many of these are of minute and accurate execu- 
tion, in light colors beautifully harmonized upon a dark ground, formed wholly 
of threads of glass. They are ranged vertically, side by side, in single threads 
or masses, agreeably to a prefigured design. When submitted to heat sufficient 
to fuze the whole, the four sides, at the same time, being pressed together, so 
as to exclude the air from the interstices of the threads — the result will be a 
homogeneous thick slab, which, if cut into veneers, at right angles or lateralh% 
will ^-ield a number of slabs or layers of the same uniform design; these, it is 
supposed, were employed by the ancients in jewellery ornaments. Many 
specimens may be seen in the British Museum. On this principle were executed 
the pictures of Mosaic Glass noticed by Winckelmann." 

The same writer describes the method employed by the Venetians in 
millefiori or star work. Sections of glass cut from the ends of tinted filigree 
canes were arranged in regular or irregular devices in a hollow, double cone of 
transparent glass. From the top of the curved double case a tube projected, 
and after the whole was reheated the air was exhausted or sucked out through 
the open tube by means of a blowing iron. After being rewarmed the case 
and contents became one homogeneous mass and could be shaped into a tazza, 
bowl, paperweight or other object. 

AdiLLEFioRi Glass in America 

It is not generally kno^vn that millefiori glass has been produced in the 
United States. About the middle of the nineteenth century, millefiori paper- 
weights were brought into this country from St. Louis, Alsace-Lorraine, and 
froin Baccarat, in France, where the finest examples were manufactured. 
Workmen from these factories found their way to America and some of them, 
in their spare moments, amused themselves by exercising their skill in this 
branch of the art and making specimens for themselves and their friends. 
From them other glass-workers learned the art, and manufacturers in various 
parts of the coimtry — at East Cambridge and Sandwdch, Mass., Pittsburgh 
and Philadelphia, Pa., and other places — began the production on a limited 
scale. At first the prepared rods were procured from abroad and glass flowers, 
ready for use, were brought from Germany, but a little later new designs in 
filigree canes were made here, and from about 1860 to 1876 a considerable 
amount of millefiori glass was produced by domestic concerns. Walking canes, 
bureau and mirror knobs, marbles and cologne bottles with stoppers, were also 
produced to some extent, many of them equaling in beauty and intricacy of 
patterns the similar products of the older European factories. At the Cen- 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 



39 




S 



Q 



1n. 



i.f 



# 



o 



^'S) -^^ 

^<.^^ 



Mirror Kxob and Paperweight 

From Baccarat, France 
Figures of Rabbits in the Former 








Cut Sections of Millefiori Rods 
Cut and grouped for insertion in Paperweiglits 

Silhouette of Queen Victoria in Center 
From the Gillinder Glass Works, Philadelphia 

tennial Exhibition, in the latter year, W. T. Gillinder produced at his branch 
works on the exhibition grounds large numbers of paperweights which found a 
ready sale as souvenirs of American skill in glassmaking. 

Frank Pierre, of the New England Glass Factory, a Frenchman, made 
paperweights and other fancy articles of colored glass about 1853, as stated 
by Mr. Andrew Long of East Cambridge, Mass., who worked there at the 
same time. 



40 BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 

Mr. William F. Dorflinger infonns the writer that the St. Louis Glass 
Works, of Alsace-Lorraine, were the first to make paperweights with colored 
designs, about 1840. About 1867 some of the workmen from those works cam.e 
to the Dorflinger Glass Works, and much colored glass was produced there 
during the following two years. Among the objects made were stoppers for 
cologne bottles, paperweights, seals and other objects. The colored glass was 
drawn from the pot into cane and from the cane the flowers were made on a 
lamp and afterwards pressed or worked into the crystal pieces. 

D. J. Crowley, connected for many years with the Libbej' Glass Com- 
pany, of Toledo, Ohio, began work at the New England Glass Factory in 1869, 
and remembers distincth^ that millefiori paperweights were made there by a 
glass-worker whose name was John Hopkins. 

Mr^ Edward Drummond Libbey, president of the Libbey Glass Company, 
has stated to the writer that when he was a young man in the employ of the 
New England Glass Company, in the fifties or sixties, a large business was 
carried on in the manufacture and sale of glass paperweights until 1874, when 
the manufacture of this variety of glass was discontinued. Manj^ metal m.oulds 
for making the filigree rods were in use, which included multi-colored designs 
of flowers, stars, scrolls, animals, letters and figiu-es, from which an infinite 
number of combinations could be obtained. 

E. A. B. 



SOME RECENT ACCESSIONS 

A Gilded Wooden Statue of the Italian Renaissance 

By purchase, the Pennsylvania Museuin has recently obtained a fine 
wooden statue of a saint, which is now one of the most attractive features of 
the exhibit under the dome at Memorial Hall. It was purchased as a St. 
Francis of Assisi, but while clad in a monk's robe, the fact that the saint carries 
a missal and that he does not wear the knotted cord, which seems an inse]3arable 
insignum of St. Francis and his order, makes the identity of the personage 
represented doubtful, as there are several saints who are commonlj^ represented 
holding a book, and this is the only truly characteristic feature of our statue. 
There is reason to believe that the head was supplied either with a halo or 
with a mitre, which has disappeared. At least, the sharp edges of the tonsure, 
where the missing head-piece rested, as well as the relative roughness of the top 
surface of the head, invite such a conclusion. 

The entire figure is co^'ered with gold, with the exception of the head and 
hands which probabh^ originally were of flesh color but which have darkened 
with age and probably also with successive painters' attempts at matching the 
darkening surfaces. The left foot has been restored. A band of con-ventional 
ornamental design edges the robe and is repeated around the pedestal. The 
latter, however, has the appearance of having been touched up, as it is so much 
clearer than that on the statue. 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 



41 




The statue, including the 
base, is sixty-six inches in 
height. The base is ten inches 
high by twenty-fi^'e long and 
sixteen and a half inches wide. 

Courajod says that in the 
fifteenth century sculpture and 
painting so jostled each other 
that often painting was sculp- 
ture painted and sculpture 
was painting sculptured. The 
coloring of statuary was at 
its height at about this period, 
but continued in general use 
through the early part of the 
sixteenth century, although in 
France, Michel Angelo was 
strongly opposed to it. 

In England, it was Chris- 
topher Wren's disciples who 
began whitewashing churches 
and destroying polychrome 
effects, and after the sixteenth 
centurj' these were considered 
in England in bad taste and 
vulgar. In Itah' or Spain, 
however, the polychrome 
statue continued. The gen- 
eral preparation of the wood 
for coloring or gilding for cen- 
turies was the same as that 
taught in the Libro d'Arte of 
the fifteenth century. The 
wood was co'v^ered partly or 
in its entirety — especially in 
the draperies — with linen pre- 
pared with a cement made of 
boiled shreds of parchment or 
even from cheese. Over this 
was applied a layer of fine 

plaster of fairly thick consistency', well smoothed and made still thicker when 
required for modeling of details or raised ornaments. The rest was the work 
of the painter, who often was a great artist. 

Tools were used. Dies in circles, nail-heads, stars and other devices for 
the draperies and other ornaments. Through these at times some special 
artist is identified, as for instance, "The Master of the Tulip," whose name is 
unknown but whose hand is identifiable through this peculiarity of his work. 




Gilded Woodrn Statue of Saint 
Italian Renaissance 



42 BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 

Time has softened the colors, especially when a work is fully gilt, as it is in 
the case of the many Flemish, Spanish and Italian figures like the present 
statue dealt with. For instance, in the St. Stephen's of the South Kensington 
Museum, the entire figure is thickly gilded on a ground of "bole Armenia," 
excepting as in the case of our example, the flesh tints and perhaps the linings 
of draperies, which usually are blue or green. 

Often the edgings and orphreys of vestments, where ours has a conven- 
tional ornament, were decorated with inscriptions running down their length, 
or thick pastes in imitation of brocades, while the gilding was diapered in 
"pointille." 

Francisco Pacheco in his "Arte de la Pintura," 1649, gives long details of 
techniques for polychroming sculpture, with recipes for colors, varnishes and 
gilding, and a disquisition on the respective merits of highly polished or matt 
effects in gold. 

In Spain, later, lay figures dressed in real draperies came into use. But 
even in this degradation of art the great Spanish painters did not scorn to lend 
their talent to the painting of the face and hands. 

In the Pennsyh^ania Museum's statue the hands are beautifully carved 
and posed with much artistic delicacy. It is perhaps worthy of note in con- 
nection with its identification, that these hands bear no trace of stigmata which 
usually appear on those of St. Francis — another reason against that attribution 
of the statue. The wood where exposed bears every sign of age — not only is 
it worm-eaten, but in exposed places it is punky. Altogether the specimen is 
one of considerable interest. 

Two Valuable Pieces of Old English Silver 

The Pennsylvania Museum, through the generosity of Mrs. Charles Mor- 
ton Smith, has become the possessor of two remarkably fine pieces of English 
silver dating from the eighteenth century. Mrs. Smith has given them in 
memory of her late husband, Charles Morton Smith, as the family tradition 
concerning them is that they descended unto him from his ancestress, Mrs. 
Thomazine Mickle Fox. One of the pieces is a set of casters — an unusually 
fine specimen of the well-known style — in perfect condition and stamped with 
the initials of the makers, I. M. and I. D., London, 1770. Aionograms of the 
original owner, T. M. F., further attest its provenance. 

The other, a chocolate pot, is a superb specimen of heaw silver repousse 
work of rich design in grapevines and birds, bearing a family crest. It is ten 
inches high, and was made by Fras. Crump, London, 1764. Not only are the 
pieces of value as specimens of fine English silversmithery in the eighteenth 
century, but they possess genealogical interest. 

Archibald Mickle, an Irish Quaker, came from Ireland to this country in 
the seventeenth century. In 1686 he married Sarah Watts and went to live 
in New York, where he died in 1706. His son, Samuel Mickle, in 1716 married 
Thomazine Marshall who was a daughter, bom in 1692, of James and Rachel 
Marshall, the first named ha\nng come over from York, England, with William 
Hudson. 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 



43 




44 BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANLA. MUSEUM 

Samuel Mickle is on record as a merchant in good standing. He became 
a member of common council in 1730 and held the office until his death in 1747. 
With him there were associated in the se^^enteen years of his service to the 
city many men whose names were destined to be looked to by us with respect. 
Such were Edward Shippen, George House, John Dihyjm, James Bingham, 
Samuel Powel and Samuel Powel, Jr., John Cadwalader, Andrew Bradford, 
AnthouA' Morris, Samuel Carpenter, George Mifflin, George Emlen and others. 

His daughter, Thomazine Mickle, who married Joseph Fox, was born in 
1748 and died in 1821. It was from her that the silver came into the possession 
of the late Mr. Charles Morton Smith. Her daughter married George Roberts, 
whose daughter, Mary Roberts (1784-1824), married John J. Smith. Their 
son, George Roberts Smith, and his wife, the digtiified old lady whom many of 
the older living generation still remember as Mrs. George Roberts Smith, were 
the parents of the late Mr. Charles Morton Smith, who married Miss Anna 
IngersoU, the donor of the handsome silver pieces; and of Miss Sallie Roberts 
Smith, whose will was recentl)' published. 

With the death of Mr. Smith and of his sister without issue, this branch 
of the family comes to an end. One cannot too highly commend the spirit in 
which Mrs. Charles Morton Smith, in presenting these objects to the Pennsyl- 
vania Museum, has insured their preser\'ation as a memorial of those who 
have passed away. 

A Remarkable Doll 

At the great Fete organized last spring on the Main Line of the Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad, under the direction of Mrs. William R. Philler, and her Com- 
mittee, a very beautiful doll, dressed by Mrs. Megargee Wright to represent 
"Harriet Lane," who li^'ed at the White House under the presidency of her 
uncle. President Buchanan, was raffled and won by Mrs. T. Charlton Henry. 
Mrs. Henry very generouslj^ gave it to the Pennsylvania Museum as an inter- 
esting addition to the already extensive collection of dolls which is on exhibi- 
tion and which is mainly the result of the efforts of Miss Mary E. Sinnott. 

The doll stands thirty inches high. In ever}' detail it represents the 
fashion of the period immediately preceding the Ci\dl War. 

Magnificent Point D'Alencon, Gift of Mrs. Henry P. Borie 

Through the active interest of Mrs. John Harrison, Mrs. Henry P. Borie 
has given the Penns3dvania Museum a superb Point d'Alengon set forming a 
complete "garniture" for a gown. The set consists of three broad flounces, 
measuring twelve yards, and narrower lace of the same i^ich pattern for the 
trimming of the bodice. This includes a "bertha" and sleeves and minor 
pieces . 

The set is a princely gift. It belonged to the "corbeille de mariage" of a 
young Russian Princess — and is of exceptional richness and beauty, not only 
owing to the splendor of the design but because of the extreme fineness of the 
execution and the evenness throughout the mass of the needlework it represents. 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 



45 




Doll. "Harriet Lane" 
Gift of Mrs. Thomas Charlton Henry 



Mr. and Mrs. Borie happened to he in Paris when the set was thrown 
upon the market, and Mr. Borie purchased it as an offering to his wife. The 
latter now has presented it to the Museum "in memoriam" of him. Indeed, 
it is trulv a Museum piece of rare beauty and vahie. 

S. Y. S. 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 




BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 47 

NOTES 

Special Exhibitions. — Plans are being made for holding several special 
exhibitions in the autumn, including one of tiles of all countries and periods 
and another of tapestries. A third exhibition which is in contemplation will be 
one of coimterfeits and reproductions which will be of an educational nature. 
Due notice of these exhibitions v.n\\ be gi\'en in the October Bulletin. 

* * ^ 

Colonial Relic— A colonial stairway from the celebrated old mansion, 
ChalMey Hall, Frankford, has been procured for the Museum, through the 
kindness of Mrs. Edward Wetherill, the owner of the property, and will be 
properl}^ installed in the near future. 



SCHOOL NOTES 

The sessions of the Art Department closed for the season of 1914-15, 
June 3d. The exhibition of work is considered the most professional in char- 
acter yet shown as the result of any one year's efforts. Certain of the studies, 
pottery, wrought iron, and furniture, have been carried farther than ever 
before. Lace and needlework have been added to the practical features, and 
it is planned to develop several of the crafts the coming term, by having 
indi\'iduals especially competent in these subjects to devote their entire time to 
them. In this way a sufficient bulk of production will be effected to make an 
impression of the absolutely practical character of the work. This is already 
inaugurated by an arrangement wnth one of the graduates, Leon W. Corson, 
to devote the summer to sgraffito pottery and stoneware, in both of which he 
has shown himself an adept. He, last year, won the C. Bumham Sqiiier 
foreign scholarship, and made studies of the old Italian ware while in Florence, 
at the museums, and in the various potteries where examples of it exist. Many 
of the most valuable of these are mere fragments, sufficient to furnish the ele- 
ments of the design, and Mr. Corson has a considerable collection of these 
among his sketches. Mr. H. H. Battles, who has watched the development of 
ceramics at the School, from their inception, contemplates the permanent 
establishment of one or more of the particular types of ware as a commercial 
product. 

A proposition to present the subject of posters and other fom^s of advertis- 
ing in a large and comprehensive way, has been made by Mr. Carol Arono\'ici, 
and the suggestion has now taken a sufficiently definite form to plan its con- 
summation in the autumn. The meetings and addresses would be at the 
School and the exhibit at some more central place, probably the pa\dlion in 
the City Hall courtyard. The men best qualified to speak on the subject of 
the art of advertising are ready to assist the mo\'ement, and it will decidedly 
further the eft'orts here to develop the practical side of illustration. One of the 
features will be the working exhibition of students of the School, during the 



48 BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 

conference, when the designing and execution of advertisements in \'arious 
forms and mediums will be carried on in the class rooms. 

R'Ir. Henry C. Mercer entertained the students of interior decoration at 
his remarkable house at Doylestown, while they were on a ^asit to his tile works, 
and the Curtis Publishing Company arranged a special morning for them to 
inspect its building and decorations. 

The exhibit sent by the School to the annual convention of the American 
Federation of Arts, which was held in Washington, May 12th, 13th and 14th, 
attracted much attention and very favorable comment. The exhibition is 
installed in the National Museum and is to remain open during the summer. 
The purpose of the exhibition is to show the progress of industrial art in America, 
rather than to trace or record the development of educational methods, and 
this vSchool was the only one which was invited to send an exhibit. A feature 
of the convention that was a subject of much gratification, was the prominence 
given to industrial art among the subjects which were discussed at the meetings, 
and the unquestioning recognition of a frankly industrial purpose as the only 
safe guide in modem art education, which formed the underlying motive in 
most of the papers presented. 

The commencement exercises were held at the Broad Street Theater on 
Thursday evening, June 3d; the graduating class numbered fifty-one, the 
largest, with one exception, in the historj? of the School. Certificates were 
awarded to two hundred and sixty students on the completion of partial courses. 
The commencement address was delivered by Philander P. Claxton, LL.D., 
U. S. Commissioner of Education, his subject being "The Place of Art in Demo- 
cratic Education." 

The third annual tour of the graduating classes of the Textile Department 
of the Pennsylvania Museum and School of Industrial Art, was the most success- 
ful of any of the three. The party composed of seventeen members, under 
the supervision of Director E. W. France and Richard E. Cox, of the faculty, 
spent the week following commencement touring the largest of the mill centers 
in New England, to stud}- the problems incident to the handling of large establish- 
ments. Particular attention was paid to efficiency, economj' of power trans- 
mission, character of help, location of mills with reference to the housing of 
labor and water power, besides the character of labor required for coarse, fine 
or novelty stuffs. They visited the largest textile mills of the country, located 
in Fall River, Mass.; Pawtucket, R. I.; Proiidence, R. I.; 01ne\'^'ille, R. I.; 
Worcester, Mass.; Cherry Valley, Mass.; Ludlow, Mass.; Holyoke, Mass.; 
Springfield, Mass. ; Chicopee, Mass. ; Hartford, Conn. ; and Middleto^^ii, Conn. 

Altogether the trip was most instructive and left in the minds of the grad- 
uates the magnitude of the indus'try and the problems that have to be met to 
become successful leaders in the textile field. 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 



49 



ACCESSIONS 
April — June, 1915 



CLASS 



Arms and 
Armor 



Books 
Ceramics 



Furniture 



Glass 



Goldsmith's 
and Silver- 
smith's Work 



Metal work 



Musical 

Instruments 



Miscellaneous 



OBJECT 



Cuban, Machete and Malay Dagger and Sword . 



Autograph Album, Nierstein, Germany. 1805. 
Autograph Album. Philadelphia, c. 1840 



S Pieces of Porcelain 

Pair of Large Porcelain Vases, Made at the Berlin Por- 
celain Works, 1893 

Large Porcelain Centerpiece, Made by E. Gerard 
Dufrasseix & Co.. Limoges. Prance 

Porcelain Saucer, by Josiah Spode. England, c. 1810, 

Pottery Bowl, Rakka, Mesopotamia, Thirteenth Cen- 
tury 

2 Pottery Ridge Tiles, Chinese, Ming Dynasty 

Maiolica Water Jar. Granada, Spain, Eighteenth 

Century 

3 Brown Pottery Dishes, Pennsylvania-German, c. 1830 
2 So-Called Castleford Teapots, English, Early Nine- 
teenth Century 

Pottery Figure of Lion, Chinese, Ch'ien-Lung Period. 
Pottery Figure of Quan-Yen, Chinese, Ming Dynasty. 

Mahogany Shaving Mirror, American, c. 1800 



Colonial Stairway from Chalkley Hall 

Chair, French, Empire Period 

1 2 Pieces of Glass 

Glass Brooch with Intaglio Design, Old American 

2 Cameo Carved Glass Vases, Chinese, Ch'ien-Lung 
Period 



7 Silver Teaspoons, Old American 

Silver Rose- Water Sprinkler. Syrian 

2 Pairs of Gold Ear-Rings and Gold Brooch 

Silver Coffee-Pot, by Eras. Crump, London. England, 

1764 

Silver Caster and Bottles, English, 1 770 

Pair of Silver Sugar Tongs and 4 Silver Teaspoons, 

Philadelphia, Eighteenth Century 



Collection of Nautical Instruments Added to Frish- 
muth Antiquarian Collection 

2 Fire Insurance Plates, Philadelphia, Nineteenth 
Centurv 

Oyster Knife and Wafer Iron, Old American 

Iron Stand for Spools, Old American 

Brass Door Knocker, Eagle Design, Old American . . . 

Bronze and Lacquer Musical Instrument (Kagura- 
Suza), Japanese 



White Muslin Cover, with Blue Printed Designs, Old 

American 

Doll, Dressed in the Style of 1850 



Old Silk Embroidered Linen Chasuble. 

Austrian Tyrol - ■ ■ 

Silk Coverlet, Old Italian 

Hooked Rag Rug. Old American 



from the 



Collection of 66 SnufT Bottles, Small Vases, etc., 
Chinese and Japanese 

Tortoise-Shell Tea Caddy, Card Case, and Match 

Box, Old American 

Picture Painted on Tortoise-Shell Disk and Tortoise- 
Shell Casket with Silver Mounts, Old Spanish 

Tortoise-Shell Comb with Applied Gold Ornament, 
French 



HOW ACQUIRED 



Lent by Mrs. Jones Wister. 

Given by Mrs. Minnie C. Lauber. 
Given by Mr. Fenton Ross. 

Lent by Dr. Edwin A. Barber. 

Given by the Field Museum 
Natural History. 

Given by Mrs. John Harrison. 

Lent by Mr. John T. Morris. 



By Purchase. 



Given by Mrs. Frederick Thurston 

Mason. 
Given by Mrs. Edward Wetherill. 
By Purchase. 

Lent 'oy Dr. Edwin A. Barber. 
Given by Mrs. John Harrison. 

By Purchase. 

Given by Mrs. Hampton L. Carson. 
Lent by Mrs. William H. Elliott. 
Given by Mr. J. Bunford Samuel. 

Given by Mr. Charles Morton Smith. 



By Purchase. 



Given by Mrs. William D. Frishmuth 

Given by Mrs. John Harrison. 
Given by Mr. Charles Henry Hart. 
Estate of Mrs. Amos Leland. 
By Purchase. 



Given by Mrs. William D. Frishmuth. 

Given by Mrs. Hampton L. Carson. 
Given by Mrs. Thomas Charlton 
Henry. 

Given by Miss Nina Lea. 

By Purchase. 

Lent by Mr. Moyer Fleisher. 
Given by Mrs. John Harrison. 

Estate of Mrs. Amos Leland. 



MEMBERSHIP 

The Tl-Ustees of the Pennsylvania MuseUffl 
and School of Industrial Art desire the 
active co-operation of all public-spirited 
citizens who are known to be in sympathy 
with its educational work, All such persons 
are invited to become members. 

CLASSIFICATION OF MEMBERS 

Patron Members in Perpetuity — Those who 
contribute the sum of §5000 or more whether 
in money or objects for the Museum. 

Fellowship Members in Perpetuity — Those 
who contribute $1000 at one time. 

Life Members^Those who contribute the 
sum of $100 or more at one time. 

Annual Members — Those who contribute 
not less than 1 10 yearly. 

The contributions received from Patrons 
($5000), and from Life Members ($100), are 
added to the permanent Endowment Fund. 
Contributions from Annual Members ($10) 
are used to the best advantage in the de- 
velopment of the Museum and the School. 

ADVANTAGES OF MEMBERSHIP 

All members are entitled to the following 
benefits: 

The right to vote and transact business 
at the Annvial Meeting. 

Invitations to all general receptions and ' 
exhibitions held at the Museum and the 
School. 

Free access to the Museum and School 
Libraries and admission to all lectures. 

Also a copy of each of the following pub- 
lications: 

The Annual Report of the Corporation. 

The Annual Circulars, of the School of 
Applied Art and the Philadelphia Textile 
School. 

The Art Handbooks and Art Primers, 
issued from time, to time by the Museum 
(a printed list of publications will be mailed 
to any member on application). 

The Illustrated Quarterly Bulletin of the 
Museum. 

A list of members is published each year 
in the Annual Report. 

Applications for membership, and remit- 
tances should be sent, to the Secretarv, 
P. M. & S. I. A., Memorial Hall, Fairmouiit 
Park, Philadelphia, Pa. 

HOURS OF ADMISSION 

The Museum is open, free to the public, 
every day in the year. 
Opening Hours: 
Mondays at 1 2 M. 
Other Week Days at 9.30 A. M. 
Sundays at 1 P. M. 
Closing Hours: 

During the summer months, 5 P. M. 

(Sundays, 6 P. M.) 
During the winter months, a half hour 
before sunset. 



CATALOGUES, HANDBOOKS, ETC. 

(On sale at the South Entrance) 

Handbook of the Museum $0.25 

A Brief History of the Bayeux Tapestry . 10 
Cork Models of Windsor Castle, Tower 
of London, Westminster Abbey, 

Church of St. Peter, Rome 10 

The Great Seals of England 25 

Handbook of the Collection of Tulip 
Ware of the Pennsylvania-German 
Potters: 

Paper cover 1 . 00 

Large paper edition. Cloth 5 . 00 

Handbook of the Maiolica of Mexico: 

Paper cover 1.00 

Flexible Art Canvas 2 . 00 

Art Primer No. 3, Lead Glazed Pottery . 50 
Art Primer No. 5, Tin Enameled Pot- 
tery 50 

Art Primer No. 6, Salt Glazed Stone- 
ware 50 

Art Primer No. 9, Hard Paste Porce- 
lain '. 50 

Art Primer No. 11, Artificial Soft Paste 

Porcelain 50 

Bulletin of the Pennsylvania Museum 
(quarterly), per annum 1 . 00 



Friends of the Institution who desire 
to devise to it money should use the fol- 
lowing: 

Form of Bequest 

I give and bequeath unto the Pennsyl- 
vania Museum and School of Industrial Art 

the sum of dollars 

for the use of the said Corporation. 

Witnesses 



Form of Devise of Real Estate 

I give and devise unto the Pennsylvania 
Museum and School of Industrial Art, its 
successors and assigns, all that certain (here 
insert a description of the property) for the 
use of the said Corporation. 



Witnesses.. 



PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 

AND SCHOOL OF INDUSTRIAL ART 



MUSBITM COMMITTEB 



John Story Jenks, Chairman 
Thomas Skelton Harrison 
John H. McFadden 
John D. McIlhenny 

JOHN T. Morris 
ohn W. Pepper 



Edgar V. Seeler 
Mrs. W. T. Carter 
Mrs. W. D. Frishmuth 
Mrs. John Harrison 
Miss Fannie S. Magee 
Miss Elizabeth C. Roberts 



Mrs. Ritdolph Blankenburg, Ex-Officio 

Edwin AtLee Barber, Director of the Museum 

Mrs. Cornelius Stevenson, Assistant Curator and Lecturer 

HONORART CURATORS 

Textiles, Lace and Embroidery Mrs. John Harrison 

Oriental Pottery Mrs. Jones Wister 

European Porcelain Rev. Alfred Duane Pbll 

Arms and Armor Cornelius Stevenson 

Furniture and Woodwork Gustav Ketterer 

Musical Instruments Mrs. W. D. Frishmuth 

Numismatics F. D. Langenheim 

Sculpture, Marbles and Casts Alexander Stirling Caldbr 

mSTRUCTIOR COMMITTEB 

Theodore C. Search, Chairman Mrs. Rodman B. Ellison 

Charles Bond Mrs. F. K. Hipple 

Mrs. John Harrison Miss Nina Lea 

Thomas Skelton Harrison Mrs. Arthur V. Meigs 

John Story Jenks Mrs. Thomas Roberts 

John D. McIlhennt Mrs. Joseph F. Sinnott 

Edgar V. Seeler Mrs. C. Shillard Smith 

James F. Sullivan Mrs. John Wister 

William Wood Mrs. Jones Wister 
Mrs. Rudolph Blankenburg, Ex-Officio 

ASSOCIATE COMMITTBB OP WOMEIf TO THE BOARD OP TRUSTEES 

Pratldanl 
Mrs. Rudolph Blankenburg 

Pint Vlce-Presldaiit Second V1ce-Preiid«iit 

Miss Nina Lea Mrs. C. Leland Harrison 



SscretaiT 

Mrs. Henry S. Grovb 

Mrs. Edwin Swift Balch Mrs. 

Mrs. Jasper Yeates Brinton Mrs. 

Mrs. John H. Brinton Miss 

Mrs. William T. Carter Mrs. 

Miss Margaret Clyde Mrs. 

Miss Ada M. Crozer Mrs. 

Mrs. David E. Dallam Mrs. 

Mrs. Rodman B. Ellison Mrs. 

Countess Santa Eulalia Mrs. 

Miss Cornelia L. Ewing Mrs. 
Mrs. George Harrison Frazier Mrs. 

Mrs. W. D. Frishmuth Mrs. 



Treasurer 

Mrs. Joseph P. Sinnott 



W. W. Gibbs 
John Harrison 

M. S. HiNCHMAN 

F. K. Hipple 
Harold W. How 
J. L. Ketterlinus 
George G. M. Large 
Robert R. Logan 
Howard Longstreth 
Arthur V. Meigs 
James Mifflin 
Francis F. Milne 



Mrs. Thornton Oakley 
Mrs. Charles Platt, 3d 
Mrs. Thomas Roberts 
Miss Mary E. Sinnott 
Mrs. C. Shillard Smith 
Mrs. Cornelius Stevensok 
Mrs. Edward T. Stotesbury 
Mrs. William H. Walbaum 
Mrs. a. B. Weimer 
Mrs. John Wister 
Mrs. Jones Wister 



Mrs. M. Hampton Todd 



honorary members 
Miss Fannie S. Magee 



Miss Elizabeth C. Roberts